The Academic Motivation Scale: Dimensionality, Reliability, and Construct Validity Among Vocational Students

  • Britt Karin Støen Utvær Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
  • Gørill Haugan Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
Keywords: Self-determination theory, academic motivation scale, confirmatory factor analysis, vocational students, school completion

Abstract

Self-determination theory (SDT) distinguishes types of motivation according to types of self-regulation along a continuum of internalisation. Types of motivation vary in quality and outcomes and are frequently used in research as predictors of educational outcomes such as learning, performance, engagement, and persistence. The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), which is based on the SDT, has not previously been evaluated in Norway. In response, by using correlation and confirmatory factor analysis, we examined the dimensionality, reliability, and construct validity of the AMS among vocational health and social care students. Our hypothesised 7-factor model demonstrated the best fit, while the AMS demonstrated good reliability and construct validity in the sample of students. However, some improvements remain necessary. In predicting the rate of school completion among students on vocational tracks, amotivation and identified regulation appeared to be more powerful as intrinsic motivational variables.

References

Alivernini, F., & Lucidi, F. (2008). The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS): Factorial structure, invariance, and validity in the Italian context. Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 15(4), 211–220.


Alivernini, F., & Lucidi, F. (2011). Relationship between social context, self-efficacy, motivation, academic achievement, and intention to drop out of high school: A longitudinal study. The Journal of Educational Research, 104(4), 241–252. DOI: 10.1080/00220671003728062


American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.


Bagozzi, R.P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94. DOI: 10.1007/BF02723327


Blondal, K.S., Jónasson, J.T., & Tannhauser, A-C. (2011). Dropout in a small society: Is the Icelandic case somehow different? In S. Lamb, E. Markussen, R. Teese, N. Sandberg, & J. Polesel (Eds.), School dropout and completion: International comparative studies in theory and policy (pp. 233–252). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-9763-7_13


Brown, T.A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York, NY: Guilford Press.


Can, G. (2015). Turkish version of the Academic Motivation Scale. Psychological Reports, 116(2), 388–408. DOI: 10.2466/14.08.PR0.116k24w5


Carifio, J., & Perla, R. (2007). Ten common misunderstandings, misconceptions, persistent myths and urban legends about Likert scales and Likert response formats and their antidotes. Journal of Social Sciences, 3(3), 106–116. DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2007.106.116


Clark, L.A., & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 309–319. DOI: 10.1037/1040-3590.7.3.309


Cokley, K.O., Bernard, N., Cunningham, D., & Motoike, J. (2001). A psycho­metric investigation of the Academic Motivation Scale using a United States sample. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34, 109–119.


Dahlback, J., Hansen K., Haaland, G., & Sylte, A.L. (2011). Veien til yrkesrelevant opplæring fra første dag i Vg1 [The path to relevant vocational education]. Akershus, Norway: Høgskolen i Akershus.


Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7


Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2000). The ‘what’ and ‘why’ of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268. DOI: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01


Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains. Canadian Psychology/ Psychologie canadienne, 49(1), 14–23. DOI: 10.1037/0708-5591.49.1.14


Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2014). Motivation, personality, and development within embedded social contexts: An overview of self-determination theory. In R. Ryan (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of human motivation (pp. 85–107). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.


Fairchild, A.J., Horst, S.J., Finney, S.J., & Barron, K.E. (2005). Evaluating existing and new validity evidence for the Academic Motivation Scale. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30(3), 331–358. DOI: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2004.11.001


Fayers, P.M., & Machin. D. (2007). Quality of life: The assessment, analysis and interpretation of patient-reported outcomes. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. DOI: 10.1002/9780470024522


Goodwin, L.D., & Leech, N.L. (2003). The meaning of validity in the new standards for educational and psychological testing: Implications for measurement courses. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 36(3), 181–191.


Grouzet, F.M.E., Otis, N., & Pelletier, L.G. (2006). Longitudinal cross-gender factorial invariance of the Academic Motivation Scale. Structural Equation Modeling, 13(1), 73–98. DOI: 10.1207/s15328007sem1301_4


Guay, F., Morin, A.J.S., Litalien, D., Valiois, P., & Vallerand, R. (2015). Application of exploratory structural equation modeling to evaluate the Academic Motivation Scale. The Journal of Experimental Education, 83(1), 51–82. DOI: 10.1080/00220973.2013.876231


Guay, F., Ratelle, C.F., & Chanal, J. (2008). Optimal learning in optimal contexts: The role of self-determination in education. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 49(3), 233–240. DOI: 10.1037/a0012758


Hair, J.F., Black W.C., Babin, B.J., & Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Hansen, K., & Haaland, G. (2015). Utfordringer i norsk yrkesopplæring [Challenges in Norwegian vocational education and training]. In K. Hansen, T.L. Hoel, & G. Haaland (Eds.),  Tett på yrkesopplæring [Hands on vocational education and training] (pp. 19–49). Bergen, Norway: Fagbokforlaget.


Hardre, P.L., & Reeve, J. (2003). A motivational model of rural students’ intentions to persist in, versus drop out of, high school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(2), 347–356. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0663.95.2.347


Hiim, H. (2013). Praksisbasert yrkesutdanning: Hvordan utvikle relevant yrkesutdanning for elever og arbeidsliv? [Practice-based vocational education: How to develop relevant professional education for students and working life]. Oslo, Norway: Gyldendal Akademiske.


Jang, H. (2008). Supporting students’ motivation, engagement, and learning during an uninteresting activity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(4), 798–811. DOI: 10.1037/a0012841


Jöreskog, K.G., & Sörbom, D. (1995). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International.


Kline, R.B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford Press.


Markussen, E., Sandberg, N., Lødding, B., & Frøseth, M.W. (2008). Bortvalg og kompetanse: Gjennomføring, bortvalg og kompetanseoppnåelse i videregående opplæring blant 9749 ungdommer som gikk ut av grunnskolen på Østlandet våren 2002: hovedfunn, konklusjoner og implikasjoner fem år etter [Early leave, non-completion, or completion? On early leave, non-completion, or completion in upper secondary education among 9,749 young people that left lower secondary school in spring 2002]. Oslo, Norway: NIFU STEP.


Ministry of Education. (2008). NOU 2008:18. Fagopplæring for framtida [Vocational education for the future]. Oslo, Norway: The Government.


Ministry of Education. (2011). Yrkesretting av Kunnskapsløftet [Vocational orientation of teaching in the Knowledge Promotion Reform]. Retrieved October 28, 2015, from http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/kd/pressesenter/pressemeldinger/2011/yrkesretting-avkunnskapsloftet.html?id=651538


Ministry of Education. (2012). Meld. St. 13 (2011–2012). Utdanning for velferd: Samspill i praksis [Education for welfare: Interaction as key]. Oslo, Norway: The Government.


Ministry of Education. (2013). Meld. St. 20 (2012–2013). På rett vei: Kvalitet og mangfold i fellesskolen [On the right track: Quality and diversity in public school]. Oslo, Norway: The Government.


Mikiewicz, P. (2011). School dropout in secondary education: The case of Poland. In S. Lamb, E. Markussen, R. Teese, N. Sandberg, & J. Polesel (Eds.), School dropout and completion: International comparative studies in theory and policy (pp. 173–190). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-9763-7_9


Netemeyer, R.G., Bearden, W.O., & Sharma, S. (2003). Scaling procedures: Issues and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. DOI: 10.4135/9781412985772


Olsen, R. (2006). HELT-rapporten: En spørreundersøkelse ved innføringen av kvalitetsreformen ved UiO [HELT report: A survey by the introduction of the Quality Reform at the University]. Oslo, Norway: Studenthelsetjenesten.


Otis, N., Grouzet, F.M.E., & Pelletier, L.G. (2005). Latent motivational change in an academic setting: A 3-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(2), 170–183. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0663.97.2.170


Raykov, T. (2001). Estimation of congeneric scale reliability using covariance structure analysis with nonlinear constraints. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 54(2), 315–323. DOI: 10.1348/000711001159582


Raykov, T., & Marcoulides, G.A. (2006). On multilevel model reliability estimation from the perspective of structural equation modeling. Structural     Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 13(1), 130–141. DOI: 10.1207/s15328007sem1301_7


Rothman, K.J. (2002). Epidemiology: An introduction. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.


Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78. DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68


Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2009). Promoting self-determined school engagement: Motivation, learning, and well-being. In K.R. Wentzel, & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of school motivation (pp. 171–196). New York, NY: Routledge.


Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In A.V. Eye, & C.C. Clogg (Eds.), Latent variables analysis: Applications for developmental research (pp. 399–419). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


Samdal, A.K., & Smith, K. (2012). Møte med yrkesfagleg utdanning i den norske videregående skulen [Meeting vocational education and training in Norwegian secondary schools]. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 2(1), 1–18. DOI: 10.3384/njvet.2242-458X.12v2i1a2


Schermelleh–Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Muller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research, 8(2), 23–74.


Statistics Norway. (2016). Throughput in upper secondary school, 2010–2015. Retrieved July 7, 2016, from
http://www.ssb.no/utdanning/statistikker/vgogjen/aar/2016-06-02?fane=tabell&sort=nummer&tabell=268109


Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.


Utdanningsdirektoratet. (2012). The education mirror. Retrieved September 9, 2015, from
http://www.udir.no/Upload/Rapporter/2012/US2012_ENG_nettversjon.pdf?epslanguage=no


Utvær, K.S.B. (2014). Explaining health and social care students’ experiences of meaningfulness in vocational education: The importance of life goals, learning support, perceived competence, and autonomous motivation. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 58(6), 639–658. DOI: 10.1080/00313831.2013.821086


Vallerand, R.J., & Bissonnette, R. (1992). Intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivational styles as predictors of behavior: A prospective study. Journal of Personality, 60(3), 599–620. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00922.x


Vallerand, R.J., Fortier, M.S., & Guay, F. (1997). Self-determination and persistence in a real-life setting: Toward a motivational model of high school dropout. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(5), 1161–1176. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.72.5.1161


Vallerand, R.J., Pelletier, L.G., Blais, M.R., Brière, N.M., Senècal, C., & Vallières, E.F. (1992). The Academic Motivation Scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52(4), 1003–1017. DOI: 10.1177/0013164492052004025


Vallerand, R.J., Pelletier, L.G., Blais, M.R., Brière, N.M., Senècal, C., & Vallières, E.F. (1993). On the assessment of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education: Evidence on the concurrent and construct validity of the Academic Motivation Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53(1), 159–172. DOI: 10.1177/0013164493053001018


Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & Deci, E.L. (2006). Intrinsic versus extrinsic goal contents in self-determination theory: Another look at the quality of academic motivation. Educational Psychologist, 41(1), 19–31. DOI: 10.1207/s15326985ep4101_4


Vibe, N., Brandt, S.S., & Hovdhaugen, E. (2011). NIFU 2011:19: Underveis i videregående opplæring: evaluering av Kunnskapsløftet: Underveisrapport fra prosjektet ‘Struktur, gjennomføring og kompetanseoppnåelse’ [On the way in secondary education: An evaluation of knowledge promotion: A preliminary report from the Structure, Implementation, and Achievement project]. Oslo, Norway: NIFU.


Waltz, C., Strickland, O., & Lenz, E. (2005). Measurement in nursing research. New York, NY: Springer.


Wendelborg, C., Røe, M.R., & Martinsen, A. (2014). NTNU Samfunnsforskning 2014:14. Yrkesretting og relevans i praksis. En kvalitativ studie om tilpasning av fellesfag til yrkesfaglige studieprogram [Vocational-oriented education and relevance in practice: A qualitative study on the adaptation of the common core to vocational study programmes]. Trondheim, Norway: NTNU Samfunnsforskning.

Published
2016-11-08
How to Cite
Utvær, B. K. S., & Haugan, G. (2016). The Academic Motivation Scale: Dimensionality, Reliability, and Construct Validity Among Vocational Students. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 6(2), 17-45. https://doi.org/10.3384/njvet.2242-458X.166217
Section
Peer-reviewed research articles