Virtual welding: A didactic perspective


  • Steinar Karstensen OsloMet
  • Arne Roar Lier



simulated welding, technical vocational education and training (TVET), augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), mixed reality, simulation


This research was conducted as part of a Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) programme in Technical and Industrial Production and is a collaboration between Aas upper secondary school in Akershus and the Department of Vocational Teacher Education at Oslo Metropolitan University (OsloMet). Starting in autumn 2017, simulated welding has been the first step in the use of simulation teaching in order to produce qualified professionals. In TVET education, Virtual Reality technology is a new training tool for welding, and little is known about the pedagogical approaches and didactic challenges.

This article is based on interviews that were conducted with teachers and their immediate supervisors to gain insight into their prior knowledge, the approaches they intended to use, and their initial experiences of the introduction of simulation-based teaching. The research consists primarily of qualitative analyses, based on a phenomenological approach. The focus for the article is the possibilities and limitations of a virtual welding machine, as well as how it might be introduced as an educational and didactic tool in upper secondary school.

The article provides useful knowledge for those who will be using some form of simulation in teaching in general and for simulated welding in particular. This applies to both current TVET teachers and those undergoing Technical and Vocational Teacher Education.

Author Biography

Steinar Karstensen, OsloMet

Steinar Karstensen

Associate Professor

Faculty/Department: Faculty of Education and International Studies, Department of Vocational Teacher Education

Subject areas: Technology, Information technology,  ICT in teaching and learning, Communication technology, ICT and learning, Learning technology, Vocational pedagogic, Vocational didactics


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How to Cite

Karstensen, S., & Lier, A. R. (2020). Virtual welding: A didactic perspective. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 10(1), 95–107.