Both novice and expert? How apprentices develop vocational competence in workplaces where technology is continuously changing: Examples from the Norwegian media graphics programme
Keywords:vocational education and training, apprenticeship, workplace learning, technology, media production
This article explores how young apprentices develop vocational competence through apprenticeship in workplaces where technology is continuously changing. The article draws on results from a longitudinal study that followed seven apprentices enrolled in the media graphics programme in Norway through their two-year apprenticeships.
The results showed how the apprentices developed vocational competence in the community of practice in the workplaces by taking an active part in the daily produc-tion, experimenting with different solutions, reflection, and by advice and discussions with their instructors and co-workers. However, the apprentices also had to deal with work tasks where the solutions were not yet known in the workplace. The article shows how the apprentices combined learning from colleagues with learning from other resources such as software courses and use of the internet. The results showed how the apprentices’ competence development can be a resource for the co-workers and can facilitate the development of the enterprise. Furthermore, these results pro-vide new perspectives on competence development in the community of practice. The study showed that the apprenticeship has an innovative potential and is an essential way for young people to develop vocational competence in a world of work where technology is continuously changing.
Aakernes, N. (2018). From school to work: Coherence between learning in school and learning in workplaces for apprentices in the Media graphics programme in Norway. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 8(1), 76–97. https://doi.org/10.3384/njvet.2242-458X.188176
Aarkrog, V. (2005). Learning in the workplace and the significance of school‐based education: A study of learning in a Danish vocational education and training programme. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 24(2), 137–147. https://doi.org/10.1080/02601370500056268
Billett, S. (1999). Guided learning at work. In D. Boud, & J. Garrick (Eds.), Understanding learning at work (pp. 151–164). London: Routledge.
Billett, S. (2001). Learning in the workplace: Strategies for effective practice. Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
Billett, S. (2010). Learning through practice. In S. Billett (Ed.), Learning through practice: Models, traditions, orientations and approaches (pp. 1–20). Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-3939-2
Billett, S. (2013). Learning through practice: Beyond informal and towards a framework for learning through practice. In K. Ananiadou (Ed.), Revisiting global trends in TVET: Reflections on theory and practice (pp. 123–163). Bonn: UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training. Retrieved 20. February, 2019, from https://unevoc.unesco.org/fileadmin/up/2013_epub_revisiting_global_trends_in_tvet_book.pdf
Bond, E. (2014). Childhood, mobile technologies and everyday experiences: Changing technologies = changing childhoods? London: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137292537
Brinkmann, S., & Kvale, S. (2015). InterViews: Learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing (3 ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage.
Creswell, J.W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (3 ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.
Dreyfus, H.L. & Dreyfus, S.E. (1988). Mind over machine: The power of human intuition and expertise in the era of the computer. New York: Free Press.
Elmholdt, C. (2001). Læring som social praksis på arbejdsplassen [Learning as social practice in the workplace] (Doctoral dissertation). Aarhus: Aarhus Universitet.
Erstad, O., & Silseth, K. (2019). Futuremaking and digital engagement: From everyday interests to educational trajectories. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 26(4), 309–322. https://doi.org/10.1080/10749039.2019.1646290
Fenwick, T., & Nerland, M. (2014). Sociomaterial professional knowing, work arrangements and responsibility: New times, new concepts? In T. Fenwick, & M. Nerland (Eds.), Reconceptualising professional learning: Sociomaterial knowledges, practices and responsibilities (pp. 1–8). London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315813714
Forkosh Baruch, A., & Erstad, O. (2018). Upbringing in a digital world: Opportunities and possibilities. Learning mathematics, science and the arts in the context of digital technologies, 23(3), 377–390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-018-9386-8
Fuller, A. (2007). Critiquing theories of learning and communities of practice. In J. Hughes, N. Jewson, & L. Unwin (Eds.), Communities of practice: Critical perspectives (pp. 17–29). London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/NOE0415364737.ch2
Fuller, A., Hodkinson, H., Hodkinson, P., & Unwin, L. (2005). Learning as peripheral participation in communities of practice: A reassessment of key concepts in workplace learning. British Educational Research Journal, 31(1), 49–68. https://doi.org/10.1080/0141192052000310029
Fuller, A., & Unwin, L. (2003). Learning as apprentices in the contemporary UK workplace: Creating and managing expansive and restrictive participation. Journal of Education and Work, 16(4), 407–426. https://doi.org/10.1080/1363908032000093012
Fuller, A., & Unwin, L. (2004). Young people as teachers and learners in the workplace: Challenging the novice–expert dichotomy. International Journal of Training & Development, 8(1), 32–42. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-3736.2004.00194.x
Fuller, A., & Unwin, L. (2011). Apprenticeship as an evolving model of learning. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 63(3), 261–266. https://doi.org/10.1080/13636820.2011.602220
Gibbs, G. (2018). Analyzing qualitative data (2 ed.). London: SAGE.
Grasseni, C. (2007). Communities of practice and forms of life: Towards a rehabilitation of vision? In M. Harris (Ed.), Ways of knowing: Anthropological approaches to crafting experience and knowledge (pp. 209–221). New York: Berghahn.
Hughes, J., Jewson, N., & Unwin, L. (2007). Conclusion: Further developments and unresolved issues. In J. Hughes, N. Jewson, & L. Unwin (Eds.), Communities of practice: Critical perspectives (pp. 171–177). London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/NOE0415364737
Ingold, T. (2013). Making: Anthropology, archaeology, art and architecture. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203559055
Koenen, A-K., Dochy, F., & Berghmans, I. (2015). A phenomenographic analysis of the implementation of competence-based education in higher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 50, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2015.04.001
Lahn, L.C., & Nore, H. (2018). ePortfolios as hybrid learning arenas in vocational education and training. In S. Choy, G-B. Wärvik, & V. Lindberg (Eds.), Integration of vocational education and training experiences: Purposes, practices and principles (pp. 207–226). Singapore: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-8857-5_11
Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815355
LeCompte, M.D., & Schensul, J.J. (2012). Analysis and interpretation of ethnographic data: A mixed methods approach (2 ed.). Lanham: AltaMira Press.
Lensjø, M. (2016). Læring og opplæring i rørleggerfaget: En etnografisk studie av fag- og yrkesopplæring i opplæringskontor og på byggeplass [Learning and training in plumbing: An ethnographic study of vocational education in apprenticeship training agency and on construction site] (Doctoral dissertation). Roskilde: Roskilde Universitet.
Leonardi, P.M. (2010). Digital materiality? How artifacts without matter, matter. First Monday, 15(6). https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v15i6.3036
Merriam, S.B., & Tisdell, E.J. (2016). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation (4 ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Messmann, G., & Mulder, R.H. (2015). Conditions for apprentices’ learning activities at work. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 67(4), 578–596. https://doi.org/10.1080/13636820.2015.1094745
Moreno Herrera, L. (2016). Yrkesutbildningsutmaningar i nya tider: Vilken väg ska vi ta? [Vocational education and training in new times: What is the best way forward?]. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 6(2), 66–83. https://doi.org/10.3384/njvet.2242-458X.166266
Nielsen, K., & Kvale, S. (2006). The workplace: A landscape of learning. In E. Antonacopoulou (Ed.), Learning, working and living: Mapping the terrain of working life learning (pp. 119–135). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230522350_8
Nielsen, K., & Pedersen, L.T. (2011). Apprenticeship rehabilitated in a postmodern world? Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 63(4), 563–573. https://doi.org/10.1080/13636820.2011.600833
Nore, H. (2015). Re-contextualizing vocational didactics in Norwegian vocational education and training. International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training, 2(3), 182–194.
Norwegian Centre for Research Data. (2019). Information and consent. Retrieved 25. February, 2019, from http://www.nsd.uib.no/personvernombud/en/help/information_consent/
Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training. (2008). Curriculum for Media Graphics VG3 / in-service training at a training establishment (MGR3-01). Retrieved 17. January, 2018, from https://www.udir.no/kl06/MGR3-01?lplang=http://data.udir.no/kl06/eng
Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training. (2016). Norwegian vocational education and training (VET). Retrieved 3. August, 2016, from https://www.udir.no/in-english/norwegian-vocational-education-and-training/
NOU 2018:2. (2018). Fremtidige kompetansebehov I: Kunnskapsgrunnlaget [Future competence needs I: Platform of knoweldge]. Retrieved 5. January, 2019, from https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/nou-2018-2/id2588070/
Opplæringssenteret for visuell kommunikasjon. Retrieved 4. October, 2019, from https://opplaringssenteret.no/os/
Orlikowski, W.J. (2000). Using technology and constituting structures: A practice lens for studying technology in organizations. Organization Science, 11(4), 404–428. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.11.4.404.14600
Orlikowski, W.J. (2007). Sociomaterial practices: Exploring technology at work. Organization Studies, 28(9), 1435–1448. https://doi.org/10.1177/0170840607081138
Patton, M.Q. (2015). Qualitative research & evaluation methods: Integrating theory and practice (4 ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.
Pedersen, L.T., & Elmholdt, C.W. (2008). Assessment in practice: An inspiration from apprenticeship. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 52(1), 97–116. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313830701786719
Poortman, C.L., Illeris, K., & Nieuwenhuis, L. (2011). Apprenticeship: From learning theory to practice. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 63(3), 267–287. https://doi.org/10.1080/13636820.2011.560392
Schön, D.A. (1995). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. Aldershot: Arena.
Säljö, R. (2001). Læring i praksis: Et sosiokulturelt perspektiv. Oslo: Cappelen akademisk.
Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803932
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Nina Aakernes
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
NJVET is an open access journal, this means anyone can access, freely download and read the journal. There are no commercial interests for Linköping University Electronic Press or the Nordic network for vocational education and training (NordYrk) in publishing the journal. From 2021 NJVET publishes all articles under the Creative Commons License CC-BY 4.0.
The core idea of open access is that copyright remains with the authors. However, we publish with the agreement of the authors that if they decide later to publish the articles elsewhere, the publisher will be notified, prior to any acceptance, that the article has already been published by NJVET.
When publishing with NJVET, it is with the agreement of the authors that if they make their articles available elsewhere on the internet (for example, on their own websites or institutional websites), that they will do so by making links to the articles as published in NJVET using the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) numbers of the articles and acknowledge in the text of the sites that the articles have been previously published in NJVET.