De fem A’er: En evalueringsmodel for læreprocesser på erhvervsuddannelserne

[The five A’s: An assessment model for vocational education]


  • Lene Tanggaard Aalborg Universitet, Danmark



assessment, dynamic assessment, formative assessment, the five A-model, vocational education


This article develops the contours of a new Five A-model for assessment practices in vocational education. The model develops a combination of the Five A-model taken from creativity research with empirical studies of vocational education. The rationale is to create a basis for description, analysis and development of assessment in vocational education. The Five A-model presents a heuristic method used to describe and reflect on basic assessment practices in vocational education studying the simultaneously related and dynamically interacting role of respectively actors, action, audiences, artefacts and affordances for assessment. On this basis, the article asks not only how research on assessment developed vital distinctions between summative and formative assessment, but also how the idea of formative assessment can be a vehicle to further development of artefacts supporting boundary crossing between schools and learning in the workplace, and furthermore, how apprentices can take responsibility for their own assessment actions. Assessment practices are never neutral, but they contribute in themselves to the valorisation of particular practices, which is why researchers and practitioners in the field must continuously ask critical questions related to the consequences of assessment.


Aastrup Rømer, T. (2003). Læring og evaluering i nyere uddannelsesteori. Ph.d.-afhandling indleveret ved Institut for Læring. Ålborg: Ålborg Universitet.

Beckman, S.L. & Barry, M. (2007). Innovation as a learning process: Embedding design thinking. California Management Review, 50(1), 25-56.

Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B. & Wiliam, D. (2002). Working inside the black box: Assessment for learning in the classroom. London: King's College London School of Education.

Boud, D. (2003). Enhancing learning through self-assessment. New York: Routledge/Falmer.

Cole, M. (1996). Cultural psychology: A once and future discipline. Cambridge: Belknap Press.

Engeström, Y. (2011). From design experiments to formative interventions. Theory & Psychology, 21(5), 598-628.

Gibson, J.J. (1986). The ecological approach to visual perception. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Glăveanu, V.P. (2013). Rewriting the language of creativity: The five A's framework. Review of General Psychology, 17(1), 69-81.

Haywood, H.C. & Lidz, C.S. (2006). Dynamic assessment in practice: Clinical and educational applications: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Boud, D. & Falchikov, N. (2007). Introduction: Assessment for the longer term. I D. Boud & N. Falchikov (Red.), Rethinking assessment for higher education: Learning for the longer term (s. 3-13). London: Routledge.

Foss Hansen, H. (2001). Evaluering: Teori og praksis i designprocessen. Nordiske Organisationsstudier, 3(3), 43-62.

Lidz, C.S. (Red.) (1987). Dynamic assessment: An interactional approach to evaluating learning potential. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.

Moss, P.A., Pullin, D., Paul Gee, J. & Haertel, E.H. (2005). The idea of testing: Psychometric and sociocultural perspectives. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research & Perspective, 3(2), 63-83.

Nielsen, K. (2003). Når eleverne selv skal sige det. I K. Nielsen & S. Kvale (Red.), Praktikkens læringslandskab (s. 219-236). København: Akademisk Forlag.

Schwendimann, B.A., Cattaneo, A.A.P., Dehler Zuffrey, J., Gurtner, J.-L., Bétrancourt, M. & Dillenbourg, P. (2015). The 'Erfahrraum': A pedagogical model for designing educational technologies in dual vocational systems. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 67(3), 367-396.

Shepard, L.A. (2000). The role of assessment in a learning culture. Educational Researcher, 29(7), 4-14.

Tanggaard, L. (2006a). Læring og identitet. Aalborg: Aalborg Universitetsforlag.

Tanggaard, L. (2006b). Situating gendered learning in the workplace. Journal of Workplace Learning, 18(4), 220-234.

Tanggaard, L. & Elmholdt, E. (2008). Assessment in Practice: An inspiration from apprenticeship. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 52(1), 97-116.

Tanggaard, L. & Szulevicz, T. (2013). Sociale læreprocesser som analytisk strategi. Psyke & Logos, 34(1), 69-82.

Tanggaard, L. & Glăveanu, V.P. (2014). Creativity assessment as intervention: The case-study of creative learning. Akademisk kvarter / Academic Quarter, 9, 18-30.

Tzuriel, D. (2001). Dynamic assessment of young children. I D. Tzuriel, Dynamic assessment of young children (s. 63-75). Boston, MA: Springer.

Van der Veer, R. & Valsiner, J. (1991). Understanding Vygotsky: A quest for synthesis. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.




How to Cite

Tanggaard, L. (2020). De fem A’er: En evalueringsmodel for læreprocesser på erhvervsuddannelserne: [The five A’s: An assessment model for vocational education]. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 10(3), 17–28.