Yrkesfaglæreres profesjonelle kompetanse: En kvalitativ undersøkelse med Norge og Japan som kontekster

[Professional competences of vocational teachers: A qualitative survey with Norway and Japan as contexts]

  • Bjørn Magne Aakre Norduniversitet
Keywords: Vocational teacher, professionalism, competences, Norway, Japan


The purpose of this article is to explore the characteristics of vocational teachers’ professional competences. Norway and Japan were chosen as contexts in the hope of finding possible contrasts and new perspectives. Grounded theory (GT) was used to generate concepts and theory from data collected through observations, interviews, and written sources. The results were summarized in two main categories: professional development and professional competences. The survey concludes that professional competences of vocational teachers are shaped by national culture, content of education, professional career and globalization. Furthermore, it was found that vocational teachers in Norway and Japan have different educational and vocational backgrounds, and their professional practices differ in autonomy and career development. Significant difference on vocational students’ completion rate in Norway and Japan was found. However, it is difficult to say how these differences are related to the competences of teachers. Professional ethics became a particularly interesting field to study, but also difficult considering the cultural differences. It is recommended to do further studies on this theme.


Aakre, B.M. (2005). Formgiving og design i et didaktisk perspektiv. Trondheim: NTNU.

Aakre, B.M. (2009). Ainu, a culture of silence. Nagoya: Nagoya university.

Arani, M.R.S, Keisuke, F. & Lassegard, J.P. (2010). “Lesson study” as professional culture in Japanese schools: An historical perspective on elementary classroom practices. Japan Review, 22, 171–200.

Benesch, O. (2011). Bushido: The creation of martial ethics in late Meiji Japan. Vancouver: University of British Colombia.

Charmaz, K. (2014). Constructing grounded theory. London: SAGE.

Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. (2015). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Dale, E.L. (1999). Utdanning med pedagogisk profesjonalitet. Oslo: Ad Notam Gyldendal.

Deng, Z. (2012). Constructing Chinese didactics: (Re)discovering the German didactics tradition. London: Routledge.

Elkjær, B. & Mossfeldt Nickelsen, N.C. (2016). Intervention as workplace learning. Journal of Workplace Learning, 28(5), 266–279. https://doi.org/10.1108/JWL-09-2015-0064

Etzioni, A. (1969). The Semi-professions and their organization: Teachers, nurses, social workers. New York: The Free Press.

Ghosh, A. & Korsmo, E.K. (2017). Økning i rapportering om vold mot lærere. Oslo: Utdanningsforbundet.

Glaser, B.G. & Strauss, A.L. (1967).The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. New Brunswick & London: Aldine.

Grollmann, P. (2008). The quality of vocational teachers: Teacher education, institutional roles and professional reality. European Educational Research Journal, 7(4), 535–547. https://doi.org/10.2304/eerj.2008.7.4.535

Handal, G. (1989). Lærerne og den andre profesjonaliteten. I: Ø. Jordell & P.O. Aamodt (Red.), Læreren fra kall til lønnskamp (s. 212–230). Oslo: Tano.

Hargraves, A. & Fullan M. (2012). Professional capital: Transforming teaching in every school. New York: Teachers College Press.

Ishikawa, K. (1979). Guide to quality control. Tokyo: Asian Productivity.

Kallio, H., Virta, K, Kallio, M., Virta. A., Hjardemaal, F.R. & Sandven, J. (2017). The utility of the metacognitive awareness inventory for teachers among in-service teachers. Journal of Education and Learning, 6(4), 78–91. https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v6n4p78

Kunnskapsdepartementet (2009). Læreren, rollen og utdanningen. St. Meld. Nr 11 (2008–2009). Oslo: Kunnskapsdepartementet.

Kunnskapsdepartementet. (2013). Forskrift om rammeplan for yrkesfaglærerutdanning. Oslo: Kunnskapsdepartementet.

Kunnskapsdepartementet (2016). Forskrift om rammeplan for grunnskolelærerutdanning 1–7 og 5–10. Oslo: Kunnskapsdepartementet

Köpsén, S. & Andersson, P. (2018). Boundary processes in connection with students’ workplace learning: Potentials for VET teachers’ continuing professional development. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 8(1), 58–75. https://doi.org/10.3384/njvet.2242-458X.188158

Maxwell, B. (2017). Codes of professional conduct and ethics education for future teachers. Philosophical Inquiry in Education, 24(4), 323–347.

MEXT. (2006). Lov om opplæring i Japan (教育基本法). Hentet den 06.09.2018 fra http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/houan/an/06042712/003.htm


MEXT. (2017). Lærerens oppgaver og plikter (教員の職務について). Hentet den 10.08.2018 fra http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/shingi/chukyo/chukyo3/031/siryo/06111414/003.htm


MEXT. (2018). Moralsk oppseding (道徳教育). Hentet den 10.08.2018 fra http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/doutoku/index.htm


Nieves, F. (2014). The modern Samurai. Oslo: Universitet i Oslo.

Nordin, A. (2016). Teacher professionalism beyond numbers: A communicative orientation. Policy Futures in Education, 14(6), 830–845. https://doi.org/10.1177/1478210316656507

Nishigori, H., Harrison, R., Busari, J. & Dornan, T. (2014). Bushido and medical professionalism in Japan. Academic Medicine, 89(4), 560–563. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000000176

Nitobe I. (2002). Bushido: The soul of Japan. Tokyo: Kodansha International.

Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.

May, R. (1989). Heidegger’s hidden sources. London: Routledge.

Okano, K. & Tsuchiya, M. (2003). Education in contemporary Japan. New York: Cambridge University press.

Rektorutdanningen. (2017). Hentet den 08.11.2017 fra https://www.ntnu.no/videre/rektorutdanningen


Robson, J., Bailey, B. & Larkin, S. (2009). Adding value: Investigating the discourse of professionalism adopted by vocational teachers in further education colleges. Journal of Education and Work, 17(2), 183–195. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080410001677392

Rownan, B., Shilling S.G., Ball, D.L. & Miller, R. (2001). Measuring teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge in surveys: An exploratory study. Philadelphia: CPRP.

Shulman, L.S. (2004). Theory, practice, and the education of professionals. I L.S. Shulman, The wisdom of practice: Essays on teaching, learning, and learning to teach (s. 511–526).San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Steinsholt, K. (2009). Evidensbaserte standarder eller profesjonalitet? Bedre Skole, Nr. 1 2009, 54–62. Utdanningsforbundet. Oslo

Sylte, A.L. & Jahanlu, D. (2017). Profesjonsrettet lærerutdanning for yrkesfag: Dagens undervisning og opplevelse av relevans. Scandinavian Journal of Vocations in Development, 2. https://doi.org/10.7577/sjvd.2010

Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.

Utdanningsforbundet. (2009). En offensiv og ansvarlig profesjon. Oslo: Utdanningsforbundet.

Utdanningsforbundet. (2012). Lærarprofesjonen si etiske plattform. Oslo: Utdanningsforbundet.

von Schantz Lundgren, I., Lundgren, M. & Svensson V. (2013). Learning study i gymnasial yrkesutbildning: En fallstudie från ett hantverksprogram. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.3384/njvet.2242-458X.13v3i1a6

How to Cite
Aakre, B. M. (2018). Yrkesfaglæreres profesjonelle kompetanse: En kvalitativ undersøkelse med Norge og Japan som kontekster. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 8(2), 71-92. https://doi.org/10.3384/njvet.2242-458X.188271
Peer-reviewed research articles