Opplevelse av sammenheng i fag- og yrkesopplæring: Et longitudinelt perspektiv

[Sense of coherence in vocational education and training: A longitudinal perspective]





salutogenic theory, sense of coherence (SOC), general resistance resources (GRR), stress management, vocational competence


This longitudinal study explores the resources vocational students need to balance stress and develop vocational competence in school- and work-based learning. As a theoretical framework, the concepts of sense of coherence (SOC) and general resistance resources (GRR) are used, as proposed by Antonovsky in his salutogenic theory. SOC consists of three components: comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness. GRR is about how a person, group or community use internal and external resources to promote SOC. Participants are interviewed at the end of their school part of the education and again at the end of the apprenticeship. The two interviews are compared using comparative analysis methods to explore how participants’ GRRs develop. The study shows that comprehensibility increases when practice and theory are integrated into work tasks during the apprenticeship. The manageability component, developed throughout the educational process, helps them master stress and to face unpredictable situations. The GRRs promoting meaningfulness are almost similar in the two interviews and appear to be stable over time and central for participants to engage in learning situations and develop vocational competence.


Akkerman, S. & Bakker, A. (2012). Crossing boundaries between school and work during apprenticeships. Vocations and Learning, 5(2), 153–173. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12186-011-9073-6

Antonovsky, A. (1979). Health, stress, and coping. Jossey-Bass.

Antonovsky, A. (1972). Breakdown: A needed fourth step in the con-ceptual armamentarium of modern medicine. Social Science & Medicine, 6(5), 537–544. https://doi.org/10.1016/0037-7856(72)90070-4

Antonovsky, A. (1987). Unraveling the mystery of health: How people manage stress and stay well. Jossey-Bass.

Antonovsky, A. (1990). A somewhat personal odyssey in studying the stress process. Stress Medicine, 6(2), 71–80. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2460060203

Antonovsky, A. (1993). The implications of salutogenesis: An outsider’s view. I A. P. Thurnbull, J. M. Patterson, S. K. Behr, D. L. Murphy, J. G. Marquis & M. J. Blue-Banning (Red.), Cognitive coping, families and disability (s. 111–122). Brooks.

Arnau, J. & Bono, R. (2008). Estudios longitudinales: Modelos de diseño y análisis Jaume Arnau. Modelos de diseño y análisis. Escritos De Psicología [Longitudinelle studier: Designmodeller og analyse Jaume Arnau. Design modeller og analyser]. Psychological Writings, 2(1), 32–41. https://doi.org/10.24310/espsiescpsi.v2i1.13356

Bakhshi, H., Downing, J., Osborne, M. & Schneider, P. (2017). The future of skills: Employment in 2030. Pearson. https://futureskills.pearson.com/research/assets/pdfs/technical-report.pdf

Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117–148. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep2802_3

Bauer, G. F., Roy, M., Bakibinga, P., Contu, P., Downe, S., Eriksson, M., Espnes, G. A., Jensen, B. B., Juvinya Canal, D., Lindström, B., Mana, A., Mittelmark, M. B., Morgan, A. R., Pelikan, J. M., Saboga-Nunes, L., Sagy, S., Shorey, S., Vaandrager, L. & Vinje, H. F. (2020). Future directions for the concept of salutogenesis: A position article. Health Promotion International, 35(2), 187–195. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daz057

Bezuidenhout, A. & Cilliers, F. V. N. (2010). Burnout, work engagement and sense of coherence in female academics in higher-education institutions in South Africa. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 36(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v36i1.872

Bildt, C., Backstig, L. & Hjelm, I.-L. A. (2006). Work and health in Gnosjö: A longitudinal study. Work: Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation, 27(1), 29–43. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16873979/

Billett, S. (2001). Learning in the workplace: Strategies for effective practice. Allen & Unwin.

Billett, S. (2010). Learning through practice. I S. Billett. (Red.), Learning through practice: Models, traditions, orientations and approaches (s. 1–20). Springer.

Carter, M., McGee, R., Taylor, T. & Williams, S. (2007). Health out-comes in adolescence: Associations with family, friends and school engagement. Journal of Adolescence, 30(1),51–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2005.04.002

Charmaz, K. (2014). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. SAGE.

Cimatti, B. (2016). Definition, development, assessment of soft skills and their role for the quality of organizations and enterprises. International Journal for Quality Research 10(1),97–130. http:// doi.org/10.18421/IJQR10.01-05

Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3 utg.). SAGE Publications.

Danielsen, A. G., Samdal, O., Hetland, J. & Wold, B. (2009). School-related social support and students’ perceived life satisfaction. The Journal of Educational Research, 102(4), 303–318. https://doi.org/10.3200/JOER.102.4.303-320

Dewey J. (2005). Demokrati og uddannelse. Dewey biblioteket. Klim Forlag.

Dweck, C. S. (2017). Mindset (Changing the way you think to fulfil your potential). Robinson.

Eames, C. & Coll, R. K. (2010). Cooperative education: Integrating classroom and workplace learning. I S. Billett (Red.), Learning through practice: Models, traditions, orientations and approaches (s. 180–196). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-3939-2_10

Eraut, M. 2004. Transfer of knowledge between education and workplace settings. I H. Rainbird, A. Fuller & A. Munro (Red.), Workplace learning in context (s. 201–221). Routledge.

Eriksson, M. (2022). The sense of coherence in the salutogenic model of health. I M. B. Mittelmark, G. F. Bauer, L. Vaandrager, J. M. Pelikan, S. Sagy, M. Eriksson, B. Lindström & C. M. Magistretti (Red.), The handbook of salutogenesis (2.utg.) (s. 61–68). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-04600-6_11

Eiríksdóttir, E. (2020). Program coherence and integration of school- and work-based learning in the Icelandic dual vocational education and training (VET) system. Education Sciences, 10(11), 314. https://doi.org/doi:10.3390/educsci10110314

Feldt, T., Kinnunen, U. & Mauno, S. (2000). A mediational model of sense of coherence in the work context: A one-year follow-up study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(4), 461–476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(200006)21:4%3C461::AID-JOB11%3E3.0.CO;2-T

García-Moya, I., Rivera, F., Moreno, C., Lindström, B. & Jiménez-Iglesias, A. (2012). Analysis of the importance of family in the development of sense of coherence during adolescence. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 40(4), 333– 339. https://doi.org/10.1177/1403494812449924

García-Moya, I., Rivera, F. & Moreno, C. (2013). School context and health in adolescence: The role of sense of coherence. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54(3), 243–249. https://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12041

Gessler, M., Nägele, C. & Stalder, B. E. (2021). Scoping review on research at the boundary between learning and working: A bibliometric mapping analysis of the last decade. International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training, 8(4), 170–206. https://doi.org/10.13152/IJRVET.8.4.8

Graeser, S. (2011). Salutogenic factors for mental health promotion in work settings and organizations. International Review of Psychiatry, 23(6), 508–515. https://doi.org/10.3109/09540261.2011.637909

Hanssen, G., Haugan, G. & Utvær, B. K. (2022). Opplevelse av sammenheng hos elever i skoledelen av yrkesopplæringen. I B. K. Utvær, E. B. Morud, K. Hansen, K. Firing & K. L. Rokkones (Red.), Å bygge broer: Samarbeid på tvers i yrkesfag (s. 93–109). Universitetsforlaget.

Hanssen, G. & Utvær, B. K. (2022). Sense of coherence among apprentices in vocational education and training in Norway: Exploring general resistance resources in work-based learning. International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training, 9(3), 363–389. https://doi.org/10.13152/IJRVET.9.3.4

Haraldsson, K., Lindgren, E. C., Mattsson, B., Fridlund, B. & Marklund B. (2011). Adolescent girls’ experiences of underlying social processes triggering stress in their everyday life: a grounded theory study. Stress and Health, 27(2), 61–70. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1336

Haugan, G. & Eriksson, M. (2021). An introduction to the health promotion perspective in the health care services. I G. Haugan & M. Eriksson (Red.), Health promotion in health care: Vital salutogenic theories and research (s. 3–14). Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-63135-2

Hiim, H. (2023). How can collaboration between schools and workplaces contribute to relevant vocational education? Results of an action research project in the school-based part of Norwegian vocational education and training. Vocations and Learning 16, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12186-022-09300-z

Idan, O., Braun-Lewensohn, O. & Sagy, S. (2013). Qualitative, sense of coherence-based assessment of working conditions in a psychiatric in-patient unit to guide salutogenic interventions. I G. F. Bauer & G. J. Jenny (Red.), Salutogenic organizations and change: The concepts behind organizational health intervention research (s. 55–74). Springer.

Idan, O., Eriksson, M. & Al-Yagon, M. (2022). Generalized resistance resources in the salutogenic model of health. I M. B. Mittelmark, G. F. Bauer, L. Vaandrager, J. M. Pelikan, S. Sagy, M. Eriksson, B. Lindström & C. M. Magistretti (Red.), The handbook of salutogenesis (2.utg.) (s. 93–106). Springer.

Jensen, B. B., Dür, W. & Buijs, G. (2017). The application of salutogenesis in schools. I M. B. Mittelmark, S. Sagy, M. Eriksson, G. F. Bauer, J. M. Pelikan, B. Lindström & G. A. Espnes (Red.), The handbook of salutogenesis (s. 225–235). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-04600-6

Johannesen, H. S., Kverneggen, K.-A. & Øgård, M. (2022). Læring på tvers: Hvordan kan yrkesfaglæreren legge til rette for boundary learning for elever i arbeidslivspraksis? Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 12(1), 51–75. https://doi.org/10.3384/njvet.2242-458X.2212151

Kinman, G. (2008). Work stressors, health and sense of coherence in UK academic employees. Educational Psychology, 28(7), 823–835. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410802366298

Kolb, D. A. (2012). Den erfaringsbaserede læreproces. I K. Illeris (Red.), 49 tekster om læring (s. 283–298). Samfundslitteratur.

Kristensson P. & Öhlund L. S. (2005). Swedish upper secondary school pupils’ sense of coherence, coping resources and aggressiveness in relation to educational track and performance. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 19(1), 77–84. https://doi/10.1111/j.1471-6712.2005.00320.x

Lillejord S., Børte K., Ruud E. & Morgan K. (2017). Stress i skolen: En systematisk kunnskapsoversikt. Kunnskapssenter for utdanning.

Lindström, B. & Eriksson, M. (2010). The hitchhiker’s guide to salutogenesis: Salutogenic pathways to health promotion. Folkhälsan.

Lindström, B. & Eriksson, M. (2011). From health education to healthy learning: Implementing salutogenesis in educational science. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 39(6), 85–92. https://doi.org/10.1177/1403494810393560

Louw, A. & Katznelson, N. (2019). Transfer and reflection in the Danish dual model: Findings from development projects in the Danish vocational education and training programmes. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 9(2), 51–70. https://doi.org/10.3384/njvet.2242-458X.199251

Lüthi, F., Stalder, B. E. & Elfering, A. (2021). Apprentices’ resources at work and school in Switzerland: A person-centred approach. International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training, 8(2), 224–250. https://doi.org/10.13152/IJRVET.8.2.5

Mittelmark, M., B., Bull, T., Daniel, M. & Urke, H. (2017). Specific resistance resources in the salutogenic model of health. I M. B. Mittelmark, S. Sagy, M. Eriksson, G. F. Bauer, J. M., Pelikan, B. Lindström & G. A. Espnes (Red.), The handbook of salutogenesis (s. 71–76). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-04600-6

Modin, B., Östberg, V., Toivanen, S. & Sundell, K. (2011). Psychosocial working conditions, school sense of coherence and subjective health complaints: A multilevel analysis of ninth grade pupils in the Stockholm area. Journal of Adolescence, 34(1), 129–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.01.004

Nilsson, P., Andersson, I. H., Ejlertsson, G. & Troein, M. (2012). Workplace health resources based on sense of coherence theory. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 5(3), 156–167. https://doi.org/10.1108/17538351211268809

NSD. (2020). Personvernerklæring. https://www.nsd.no/om-nsd-norsk-senter-for-forskningsdata/personvernerklaering/

Olsson, G., Hemström, Ö. & Fritzell, J. (2009). Identifying factors associated with good health and ill health. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16(4), 323–330. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-009-9033-9

Onstenk, J., Smith, E. & Blokhuis, F. (2007). Apprenticeship in the Netherlands: connecting school‐ and work‐based learning. Education + Training, 49(6), 489–499. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910710819136

Schön, D. A. (2001). Den reflekterende praktiker: Hvordan professionelle tænker, når de arbejder. Klim.

Sweet, R. (2014). Work-based learning: A handbook for policy makers and social partners in ETF partner countries. European Training Foundation. https://www.etf.europa.eu/sites/default/files/m/8EFD210012D6B04EC1257CE60042AB7E_Work-based%20learning_Handbook.pdf

Tjora, A. (2021). Kvalitative forskningsmetoder i praksis (4. utg.). Gyldendal.

Torsheim, T., Aaroe, L. E. & Wold, B. (2001). Sense of coherence and school-related stress as predictors of subjective health complaints in early adolescence: Interactive, indirect or direct relationships? Social Science & Medicine, 53(5), 603–614. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00370-1

Vaandrager, L. & Koelen, M. (2013). Salutogenesis in the workplace: Building general resistance resources and sense of coherence. I G. F. Bauer & G. J. Jenny (Red.), Salutogenic organizations and change: The concepts behind organizational health intervention research (s. 77–89). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6470-5_5

Van der Colff, J. J. & Rothmann, S. (2009). Occupational stress, sense of coherence, coping, burnout and work engagement of registered nurses in South Africa. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 35(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v35i1.423

Vinje, H. F. & Mittelmark, M. B. (2007). Job engagement’s paradoxical role in nurse burnout. Nursing and Health Sciences, 9(2), 107–111. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-2018.2007.00310.x

Wahlgren, B. & Aarkrog, V. (2012). Transfer: kompetence i en profesjonell samenhæng. Aarhus Universitetsforlag.

Wilson, M. G., Dejoy, D. M., Vandenberg, R. J., Richardson, H. A. & McGrath, A. L. (2004). Work characteristics and employee health and well-being: Test of a model of healthy work organization. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(4), 565–588. https://doi.org/10.1348/0963179042596522

Winding, T. N., Nohr, E. A., Labriola, M., Biering, K. & Andersen, J. H. (2013). Personal predictors of educational attainment after compulsory school: Influence of measures of vulnerability, health, and school performance. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 41(1), 92–101. https://doi.org/10.1177/1403494812467713

Aakernes, N. (2018). From school to work: Coherence between learning in school and learning in workplaces for apprentices in the Media graphics programme. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 8(1), 76–97. https://doi.org/10.3384/njvet.2242-458X.188176




How to Cite

Hanssen, G. (2023). Opplevelse av sammenheng i fag- og yrkesopplæring: Et longitudinelt perspektiv: [Sense of coherence in vocational education and training: A longitudinal perspective]. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 13(2), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.3384/njvet.2242-458X.231321



Peer-reviewed research articles